Institute of Social Sciences & Development, RS 46, 3rd Floor, Govt. Teacher's Housing Society, Karachi, Pakistan.

VOLUME 3, ISSUE 1
(JUNE, 2019)

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    Language   Urdu
    DOI :  -
    Pages Nos :  1-14
    Volume :  3
    Issue :  1
    Title:
    علم قرأت کے بیان میں تفسیر ابی سعود کا منہج
    Methodology of Tafsīr Abī Sa’ūd about ‘Ilm Al-Qirā’at (Variants)
    Author/s:
    Waqas Ahmed Khan, Doctoral Candidate, Department of Islamic Learning, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    Dr. Muhammad Atif Aslam Rao, Assistant Professor, Department of Islamic Learning, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    Email: dratifrao@uok.edu.pk
    Abstract:

    Holy Qur’ān is the primary source of Islamic Law. It has a wide horizon of sub-fields and multiple branches of knowledge. One of the most significant fields of the Qur’ānic Sciences is ‘Ilm Al-Qirā’at (The Science of Qur’ānic Variants). It stands for the recitation of the Holy Qur’ān in various styles and certain accents. It also relates to the methodology and approaches of the Qur’ānic recitation. This study examines the methodology of Interpretation of Qur’ānic verses according to variants described in Tafsīr Abī Sa’ūd. Qaḍi Abū Sa’ūd Al ‘Imādī (894-982 AH) spends a great deal of effort explaining the eloquence and miraculous construction of Qur’ānic expressions. He also mentions variant recitations where they further explain the verses. This paper explicitly details the methodology of Tafsīr Abī Sa’ūd related to ‘Ilm Al-Qirā’at (Qurānic Variants).

    Keywords:

    Ilm Al-Qirā’at, Qur’ānic Variants, Qaḍi Abū Sa’ūd Al ‘Imādī, Tafsīr Abī Sa’ūd, Qur’ānic Expressions.



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    Language   Urdu
    DOI :  -
    Pages Nos :  15-32
    Volume :  3
    Issue :  1
    Title:
    احادیث کی مکی و مدنی تقسیم۔ایک جائزہ
    Makkan and Madinaite Division of Aḥādith: An Appraisal
    Author/s:
    Shaheen Shahzadi, M.Phil Scholar, Department of Arabic & Islamic Studies, GC University, Faisalabad.
    Prof. Dr. Humayun Abbas Shams, Department of Arabic & Islamic Studies, GC University, Faisalabad.
    Email: drhumayunabbas@gcuf.edu.pk
    Abstract:

    Islām is a universal religion. It consists all the rules and regulations that encompasses solution to all problems of Muslim Ummahfor every age. Muslim jurists have discussed several commandments in the light of these rules. The two primary sources of Islamic Law; Qur'ān and Ḥadith-e-Rasōl ﷺ deal with the basic teachings, narrative principles, beliefs and the necessary commands and deeds in detail. Muslim historians discussed Makkan and Madinite life of the Prophet ﷺ and highlited various characteristics of both periods. The paper introduces the Aḥādiths and their subjects in the context of both periods. It also discusses the significance and importance of the revelation of the Aḥādith of the Holy Prophetﷺ . This article further highlights the continuous unity of the evolution of Islamic commands rather than the differences and conflicts in the mentioned era. Moreover it elucidates the elements of the Islamic eternity and the continuity of religion.

    Keywords:

    Aḥādith, Muslim Ummah, Islamic Commands, Makkan and Madinaite.



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    Language   Urdu
    DOI :  -
    Pages Nos :  33-52
    Volume :  3
    Issue :  1
    Title:
    یحیٰ بن ابی بکر العامری(م893ھ) بحیثیت سیرت نگار
    Yaḥya bin Abī Bakr Al ‘Aāmrī as a Sīrah Writer
    Author/s:
    Muhammad Umair Raouf, Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Arabic & Islamic Studies, GC University, Lahore.
    Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Naeem, Chairperson, Department of Arabic & Islamic Studies, GC University, Lahore.
    Email: naeem_gcu@yahoo.com
    Abstract:

    Yaḥya bin Abī Bakr Al ‘Aāmrī (d.893 A.H.) was a Yamanī scholar of ḥadith, Fiqh and sīrah. His book ’’بهجةالمحافل وبغيةالاماثل فی تلخیص السیروالمعجزات والشمائل‘‘ is a masterpiece and a distinct work on sīrah of the Holy Prophetﷺ. As the name shows, author has divided the book in three parts to discuss three core areas of sīrah. This book can be fairly acknowledged as an Encyclopedia of sīrah, as it discusses almost every the aspect of the life of the Prophet Muhammadﷺ, such as his attributes, miracles, incidents and battles and so on. In this book, Imām Al ‘Aāmrī deals with sīrah in a unique pattern. He infers Islamic law and rulings from sīrah narrations. This article explores the approach and methodology of “Yaḥya bin Abī Bakr Al ‘Aāmrī” in account of interpreting the sīrah of Prophet Muhammadﷺ and highlights its significant aspects with substantial details.

    Keywords:

    Yaḥya bin Abī Bakr Al ‘Aāmrī, Sīrah, Islamic law, Yamanī scholar, Bahjatul Maḥāfil wa Bughyatul Amāthil.



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    Language   Urdu
    DOI :  -
    Pages Nos :  53-66
    Volume :  3
    Issue :  1
    Title:
    ڈاکٹر این میری شمل کی شخصیت اور سیرت نگاری
    A Brief Life Sketch & Sīrah writings of Dr. Annemarie Schemmel
    Author/s:
    Hafiz Naveed Shakil, Lecturer, Jamia Millia Govt. Degree College, Karachi
    Doctoral Candidate, Department of Islamic History, University of Karachi.
    Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Sohail Shafeeq Associate Professor, Department of Islamic History, University of Karachi.
    Email: msshafiq@uok.edu.pk
    Abstract:

    Dr. Annemarie Schimmel (7 April,1922 – 26 January,2003) is German Orientalist and Notable Scholar, who wrote many books on Islām, Muslims History, Life of Muhammadﷺ, Mystical Poetry and Role of Woman in Islām to mention a few. She also loved Pakistan very much and said that Pakistan is her second Homeland. The Government of Pakistan honored her with its highest civil awards, “Sitāra-e-Imtiāz” and “Ḥilāl-e-Imtiāz”, for her scholary works on Sufism and national poet ‘Allāma Muhammad Iqbāl. Her appreciable work on Sīrat-un-Nabīﷺ is “AND MUHAMMAD ﷺ IS HIS MESSENGER”, that discusses various aspects of the Prophet’s life. It also details the Love of Muslims with Prophet Muhammadﷺ. She derived the name of her book from the second half of the Muslim profession of faith (1st Kalima) “And Muhammad is His Messenger“محمد الرسول اللہﷺ. This Notable work on the Last Prophet is the essence of her knowledge that developed over more than four decades. She was the first researcher who introduced the concept of the “Mystical Muhammadﷺ”.

    Keywords:

    Annemarie Schimmel, Orientalist, Mystical Poerty, Sufism, Sitāra-e-Imtiāz, Ḥilāl-e-Imtiāz



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    Language   Urdu
    DOI :  -
    Pages Nos :  67-84
    Volume :  3
    Issue :  1
    Title:
    الخیرالساری فی تشریحات البخاری:ایک مطالعہ
    A Study of Al-Khair Al-Sarī fī Tashrīḥāt Il Bukharī
    Author/s:
    Wajid Mahmood, Doctoral Candidate Department of Islamic Learning, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    Dr. Hafiz Iftikhar Ahmed, Chairman, Department of Islamic Studies, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur.
    Email: diftikharahmad@gmail.com
    Abstract:

    Al-Jami‘ Al-Ṣaḥiḥ by Imām Muhammad bin Ismā‘il Al-Bukharī is a book in ḥadith sciences that is considered to be the most authentic book after the Holy Qur’ān. Due to the importance of the book, there are countless commentaries written by the prominent Muslim scholars around the world in different languages. In the sub-continent many commentaries have been written by various eminent Muslim scholars and experts of the ḥadith sciences. In Pakistan, one of the most famous commentaries is Al-Khair Al-Sarī Fī Tashrīḥāt Il-Bukharī, written by Mawlānā Muhammad Siddique in Urdu language. He is considered as an expert in ḥadith sciences. This book is based on the lectures delived by him in Khair Al-Madāris Multan, Pakistan. The paper discusses some aspects of commentator’s life and his services in the field of ḥadith sciences. It also elaborates the methodology of Mawlānā Muhammad Siddique in the commentary of Aḥadith. This paper highlights the different principles used by the author īn the book.

    Keywords:

    Al-Jami‘ Al-Ṣaḥiḥ, Al-Bukharī, Ḥadith, Al-Khair Al-Sarī Fī Tashrīḥāt Il-Bukharī.



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    Language   Urdu
    DOI :  -
    Pages Nos :  85-106
    Volume :  3
    Issue :  1
    Title:
    الفقہ الاسلامی و ادلتہ میں قواعد فقہ سے استدلال کے اُسلوب کا مطالعہ
    Analytical Study of Methodology of Al Fiqh ul Islāmī wa Adillatohu
    Author/s:
    Dr. Syed Hamid Farooq Bukhari, Lecturer, Department of Islamic Studies, University of Gujrat, Gujrat.
    Email: hamid.farooq@uog.edu.pk
    Abstract:

    Sharīʻah Maxims are derived from the detailed study of Islamic jurisprudence (Fiqh), in the form of defined statements. These formulas are such general principles that infect not the law or its origin but are such a blueprint that the jurists assume to find the solution of problems in the light of Islamic Law. The way of application of these maxims is highly specific only most qualified jurists can predict the utility of a certain maxim to sort out the definite issue’s way out. Sharīʻah Maxims help to find the solution of contemporary issues in the light of Islamic point of view related to all field of Human life, regarding: Economics, Medical, Education, and so on. These help when there is no clear indication available in the Original Sources of Sharīʻah. Wahbah Al-Zuhaylī (1932-2015) has widely and impressively enhanced Islamic laws and legitimate jurisprudential through a lot of his addresses and his books which bargain comprehensively with different implications for Islamic societies. His masterpiece is Al-Fiqh Al-Islāmī wa Adalituhu in which he contended that Sharīʻah Maxims are solution of every contemporary issue in Islam. This research activity is to know how the application of Sharīʻah Maxims essential, in resolving contemporary challenges. In this study, his manner of utilization of Sharīʻah Maxims will be analyzed through descriptive and critical method.

    Keywords:

    Sharīʻah Maxims, Wahbah Al-Zuḥaylī, Islamic Jurisprudence, Contemporary, Ijtihād, Qawāʻid Fiqhiyyah



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    Language   Urdu
    DOI :  -
    Pages Nos :  107-130
    Volume :  3
    Issue :  1
    Title:
    تاریخ رسم الخط اور عربی خط کی تشکیل وارتقاء
    Historical Evolution of Arabic Script: An Appraisal
    Author/s:
    Dr. Humera Naz, Assistant Professor, Department of Islamic History, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    Email: drhumeranaz@gmail.com
    Abstract:

    The invention of writing script has always been very beneficial. If these scripts had not been invented, we could not have benefited from the gems of arts and science. We must lose the precious experiences of our ancestors. It is due to this invention that the glorious scholarly work by intellectual minds is safe. Manuscript is the key to save thoughts and theories. With the passage of time, its importance and magnificence increases. Arts and sciences, cultures and civilizations, religions, ethics, history and experiences were developed and enhanced after the invention of writing. That is why the creation of writing script is an interesting chapter of the world’s history. This thesis summarizes history of the writing style and a brief sketch of its evolutionary upheaval. The main concern of the article is the history of Arabic writing that has the distinction of being the most ancient writing system of the world. All of our ancestors’ essence of work is in Arabic script. Also, the noble book of Muslims Holy Qur’ān was revealed in this Arabic script. Hence, Arabic brought grand revolution in the world due to its religious magnificence and dignity. The significance of the Arabic writing system cannot be denied. The paper explains how Arabic script of writing transformed into a recent structure.

    Keywords:

    Writing, Invention, History, Arabic Script, Evolution.



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    Language   Urdu
    DOI :  -
    Pages Nos :  131-144
    Volume :  3
    Issue :  1
    Title:
    قانونِ توہينِ رسالت:مغرب اور پاكستانى آئين كے تناظر ميں تجزیاتی مطالعہ
    The Blasphemy Law: An Analytical Study in the Western and Pakistani Legal Perspectives
    Author/s:
    Dr. Syed Muhammad Shahid Tirmizi Lecturer, Department of Islamic Studies, NUML, Islamabad.
    Dr. Riaz Ahmed Saeed, Lecturer, Department of Islamic Studies, NUML, Islamabad.
    Email: riazussaeed@gmail.com
    Abstract:

    Muslim Ummah is facing various issues in the contemporary era. The clash between western world and Muslim world is rapidly increasing day by day. One of the most burning issue is the blasphemy of Prophet of Islām. Despite existence of the blasphemy laws in the modern world, hatred behavior and temptations are in rise. Many verses and Ahādῑth of the Holy Prophet ﷺ have already revealed that Muslim Ummah will face hostility from Jews and Christians. It is said that about a quarter of the world’s countries had anti-blasphemy laws. It is surprising fact that the modern world in spite of giving the message of justice, peace and equality, considers this sensitive issue as a freedom of expression advocating irreverence towards holy personages, sacred artifacts, customs and beliefs. All religions condemn blasphemy. Pakistan also has blasphemy law with the death penalty as its punishment. Some people consider this law faulty and struggling to abolish it. This article elaborates the blasphemy laws in Islamic and western perspective with comparison and due analysis.

    Keywords:

    Blasphemy law, Pakistan’s Constitution, Muslim Ummah, Contemporary Era, Jews and Christians.



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    Language   Arabic
    DOI :  -
    Pages Nos :  149-164
    Volume :  3
    Issue :  1
    Title:
    دور الشعر فی الدعوۃ الاسلامیۃ
    The Role of Poetry in Propagation of Islām
    Author/s:
    Dr. Asif Saleem, Assistant Professor Department of Arabic, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    Email: asifsaleem@uok.edu.pk
    Abstract:

    Poetry is an expression of a poet inspires the readers and listeners. Poetry also provides them a better understanding of that the subject. It is an art that alike connects the people more deeply and speaks to a wide variety of people in all kinds of circumstances. The poet comes with his ideas through his observation, experience. He describes all that we read, hear, feel, think or observe with a greater precision. Before the advent of Islām, a poet was considered a great pride for a tribe. He was a person of supreme importance and his words were the most effective of artillery for enemies. The importance of poetry in Islām designates through the era of the Holy Prophet ﷺ that there were Muslim poets defending Islām. The role of poetry in preaching Islām has great importance in Islamic history due to its effective expression in every era. This article aims to demonstrate the use of poetry as a means of preaching of Islām and effectiveness of poetry in propagation of the teachings of Islām. This paper also highlights the relationship of Poetry with Islamic preaching. It mentions the concept of Islamic preaching through poetry in the modern era and demonstrates its features and characteristics as well. This paper also discusses the objectives of poetry for preaching and illustrates some specimens of poetry.

    Keywords:

    Islamic Poetry, Preaching, Islām, Effective Expression, Artillery for Enemies.



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    Language   Arabic
    DOI :  -
    Pages Nos :  165-188
    Volume :  3
    Issue :  1
    Title:
    الشيخ ناصر الدين الألباني ودراسة نقدية عن بعض مؤلفاته
    Critical Study of a few Books of Al Sheikh Nāṣir Al Dīn Albānī
    Author/s:
    Shahnawaz, Lecturer, Cadet College Choa Saidian Shah, Chakwal
    Email: shahnawaz.ih@gmail.com Dr. Naeem Anwar Al-Azhari, Assistant Professor, Department of Arabic & Islamic Studies, GC University, Lahore.
    Abstract:

    Ḥadīth is a primary source of law, knowledge and basic commandments in both beliefs and practices in Islām. Experts in ḥadīth Sciences (Muḥaddithīn) have rendered remarkable services in preservation and compilation of Āḥādīth. Compilation of ḥadīth was accomplished in the second Islamic century. In the same period, Imāms began to verify the validity of Āḥadīth. Imāms of the six most authentic collections of ḥadīth (Ṣiḥaḥ Ṣittah) took this science to its climax. In the present era, Sheikh Nāṣir Al-Dīn Albānī has resumed this process following the Imāms of ḥadīth Literature. His critique has received both appreciation and deprecation from the critics. This paper is intended to seek a critical study of Albanī`s approach in evaluation of ḥadīth.

    Keywords:

    Ḥadiīth Scholars, Preservation, Compilation, Authentic Collections, Sheikh Nāṣir Al-Dīn Albānī.



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    Language   English
    DOI :  -
    Pages Nos :  1-16
    Volume :  3
    Issue :  1
    Title:
    Guidelines of the Holy Qur’ān for Observance of Obedience In the Behaviouristic Way
    Author/s:
    Dr. Saqib Muhammad Khan, Assistant Professor, Karachi Institute of Technology & Entrepreneurship (KITE)
    Email:saqibkca@yahoo.com
    Abstract:

    ‘Obedience’ is a crucial and significant factor of psychology for the behaviour change. Psychologists consider it as a basic and a necessary requirement for all communal living. Psychological experiments prove that people have a natural tendency for obedience and it is thought that obeying minor orders increases the probability of later obeying major ones. Therefore, in order to bring the radical change in the entire society, the Holy Qur’ān emphasizes the obedience of the Holy Prophet ﷺ i.e. obedience of the leader. However, quite psychologically, the mode of revelation from Almighty Allah is not abrupt and rigorous at first. First of all, people were made conscious of the worth and excellence of the Prophet’s obedience. Then gradually the level of obedience increased till it was said that people had no right to decide their issues themselves but through the guidance of the Holy Prophet ﷺ.
    The article deals with the same description. It is a well-known fact that humans are found to be surprisingly obedient in the presence of perceived legitimate authority figures. Addressing this natural instinct of human, the Holy Qur’ān outlines obedience of the Holy Prophet ﷺ as the essence of faith and submission. The details in the article is based on a proven research that people will more likely agree to do complicated tasks assigned to them, after they have previously agreed to do the simpler ones. The same was practiced by the Holy Qur’ān.

    Keywords:

    Obedience, Psychological Experiments, Qur’ān, Guidance, leader.



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    Language   English
    DOI :  -
    Pages Nos :  17-32
    Volume :  3
    Issue :  1
    Title:
    Prophetic Leadership Model For Today: An Appraisal
    Author/s:
    Dr. Khaliq Ahmad, Professor/ Former Dean, IIiBF, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM)
    Email: khaliqahmad@iium.edu.my
    Abstract:

    The prophets of Islām in past have demonstrated Islamic attributes of a servant type leadership whereby a leader is servant first for his followers. The Islamic perspective to leadership is interesting, not because it is new, but because it worked in the past. For over 1,400 years from the time of Prophet Mohammad ﷺ, Muslim leaders have demonstrated sound leadership and developed a great civilization in the process. This paper explores why an Islamic alternative might generate better outcomes. The assumption underlining this article is that the solutions of leadership crisis today are not only valid for Muslims, they tap into universal values and universal wisdoms and they are therefore valid for non-Muslims as well. It is our understanding that good leadership seems to be in short supply nowadays. Political, social and economic challenges dominate the headlines. The divide between the haves and the have not’s seems to be widening. The problem of how to make the today’s Millennium Development Goals (MDG), sustainable is becoming increasingly urgent. This is true in the Muslim world but it is increasingly true in developed countries as well. The recent electoral results in the UK and the United States indicate that what worked yesterday will be met by rising popular discontent by followers in the West and it will necessitate a change. Thus the qualities of Islamic leadership- teamwork, partnership, shura as a means of mutual consultation, and strategic thinking can ensure success and sustainable leadership.

    Keywords:

    Leaders, Prophetic Model, Spirited Leadership, Leadership Theories



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    Language   English
    DOI :  -
    Pages Nos :  33-46
    Volume :  3
    Issue :  1
    Title:
    Testimony as a Method of Proof in Islamic Law & Legal System of Pakistan
    Author/s:
    Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Siddique, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Shari‘ah & Law, IIU Islamabad.
    Email: hafiz.siddique@iiu,edu.pk
    Abstract:

    There are several methods of proof in Islamic Law to prove or disapprove the disputes and controversies such as confession, testimony, circumstantial and documentary evidences. After admission, testimony is considered the authentic mode of proving or disproving the facts in matters for administration of justice in the controversies arising amongst the people and brought before the courts of law. The judge has to rely on the testimony in deciding the cases of every nature; civil, criminal, family and financial matters. The general rule of Islamic Law is that the plaintiff is to prove the facts in the case because he alleges, and the defendant has to take an oath because he denies the facts and claims made by the plaintiff. Testimony is an absolute proof and its basic objective is to prove what is contrary to the apparent fact. The testimony of witnesses has a pivotal and paramount importance in Islamic Law as well as in the legal system of Pakistan to resolve the disputes and controversies for administration of justice and peace in the society. The current paper denotes the definition of testimony as discussed by the Muslim Jurists and describes its importance in the light of Islamic Law. It also manifests the legitimacy of testimony from the primary sources of Islamic Law such as Qur’ān, Sunnah, Consensus and Rational. The main focus of the present paper is on the testimony as an authentic proof of Islamic Law and the legal system of Pakistan.

    Keywords:

    Testimony, Method of Proof, Shahādah, Sharī‘ah, Evidence.



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    Language   English
    DOI :  -
    Pages Nos :  47-62
    Volume :  3
    Issue :  1
    Title:
    Writing of Future Obligations: Historical Background & Application
    Author/s:
    Dr. Capt. Qamar Abad,
    Master Mariner-Advocate High Court, Visiting Faculty, School of Law, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    Email: qamarabad@gmail.com
    Abstract:

    In the present commercial world, despite a variety of communication skills and means of expression available, the writing has the uppermost priority. It dominates in clarity with lowest degree of misperceptions and disputing. The civilized world adopts the same for its ease and being less tainted with risks of disputes at the later stages of recovery in the future. The importance of writing especially the commercial deeds and transactions of future debts and obligations has its roots in pre-historic era. However, the history of writing including the writing of commercial and future obligations is quite interesting. It is evident that trades, wars and other communications between civilizations played vital roles in exchanges and developments.
    Maritime commerce and trade also played vital role in development of civilizations and elevating the human in society in the world. The Mediterranean region during medieval periods played a significant role in law making and writing of commercial transactions. However, these practices were customary in Levant and Arab Peninsula several hundred years before. Al-Qur’ān, in the early 6th Century AD, directed the believers to adopt writing of commercial and future obligations by an expert scribe and witnessed. In the current paper, an attempt has been made to highlight the importance and background of writing of the future obligations.

    Keywords:

    Writing Future Obligations, Contract, Maritime, Commerce, CPEC.



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    Language   English
    DOI :  -
    Pages Nos :  63-84
    Volume :  3
    Issue :  1
    Title:
    Cultural Diversities: The Implications for Radicalization Theory and Practice on Pakistani College Campuses
    Author/s:
    Dr. Marcia Hermansen, Professor of Theology and Director Islamic World Studies, Loyola University Chicago, USA.
    Email: mherman@luc.edu
    Abstract:

    This article was prepared for a 2018 conference convened at AIR University Islamabad on “Radicalization: Perceptions, Realities and Challenges of Campus Life”. Focussing on a conference sub-theme of “culture”, the article reviews academic literature on the topic of youth radicalization, noting where existing analyses and proposed strategies largely geared to European and American contexts are either relevant for or unsuited to Pakistani universities and colleges. In addition, the concept of “culture” is addressed, whether in terms of local customs, creative expression, or sociological affinity groups, with special attention paid to discussions of the relationship of culture to Islam. The intent is to clarify the roles and responsibilities of Pakistani campus leaders to cultivate positive spaces for student life and expression in culturally authentic ways. In fact, the potentially positive aspects of “radical” student learning and engagement in the sense of “getting to the root or source” that are part of university education need to be recognized and preserved, so that youth are empowered to effectively participate, question, and critique rather than resorting to violent options.

    Keywords:

    Radicalization, Pakistani Universities, Campus cultures, Islam and Culture.



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    Language   English
    DOI :  -
    Pages Nos :  85-90
    Volume :  3
    Issue :  1
    Title:
    Memories of Muhammad: Why the Prophet Matters (Book Review)
    Author/s:
    Dr. Muhammad Modassir Ali Senior Researcher , Center for Muslim Contributions to Civilization,
    College of Islamic Studies, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar.
    Email: Mmodassir@hbku.edu.qa
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