VOLUME 2, ISSUE 2
Title:محمد اسد کے ’’دا میسج آف دا قرآن‘‘کا تجزیاتی مطالعہ
Analytical Study of “The Message of the Qur’ān” by Muhammad Asad
Author/s:Dr. Muhammad Sultan Shah, Professor, Department of Arabic & Islamic Studies, GC University, Lahore.
Dr. Hafiz Khurshid Ahmad Qadri, Assistant Professor, Department of Arabic & Islamic Studies, GC University, Lahore
Muhammad Asad was an unparalleled scholar of Arabic language in the contemporary Western world. He possessed vast knowledge of tafsīr and ḥadith literature. Being from the Jewish tradition with religious background he was also acquainted with the knowledge of previous scriptures. “The Message of the Qur’ān” is a combination of tafsīrbi’l-riwāyah or tafsīrbi’l-mathūr (interpretation by transmission) and tafsirbi’l- dirāyah or tafsīrbi’l-rā’y (interpretation by sound opinion). In his exegetical notes, he mostly relied on famous commentators and substantiated his point of view by quoting from them. However, he deviated from exegetical traditions in his footnotes on such verses in which the Prophetic miracles or super natural events have been underlined. He based such discussions on intellect rejecting any possibility of such events which is beyond the realm of cause and effect. Some of his explanatory notes on verses underlining scientific facts are worth reading but when he accepts theories as scientific facts, it becomes difficult for readers to agree with him. He was a modernist but different from modernists of Indian subcontinent who have rejected ḥadith literature altogether in their exegeses. Asad’s views on creation of man, miracles, night journey (isrā’) of the Prophet ﷺ, jinn and allegory in the Qur’ān are based on intellect where he put tafsīr and ḥadith literature aside. His rationalistic approach in such discussions has made his work unacceptable for orthodox scholars.
Muhammad Asad, Western World, Subcontinent, Tafsīrbi’l- riwāyah.
Title:سیرت حلبیہ میں فقہ السیرۃ کے اُسلوب کا مطالعہ
Study of Methodology of Fiqh Al-Sīrah in “Sīrat-e-Ḥalabiyyah”
Author/s:Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Naeem, Chairperson, Department of Arabic & Islamic Studies, GC University, Lahore
Imām Ḥalabi is one of the greatest scholars of Tafsīr, Ḥadith, Fiqh and Sīrah. His book Sīrat-e-Ḥalabiyyah is a masterpiece and classic work on the sīrah of Holy Prophet ﷺ and has got a significant place in Sīrah literature. In this book Imām Ḥalabi deals with sīrah in a different and unique way. He has derived from it jurisitc implications, instructions and lessons for practical life. This style of Sīrah writing is called Fiqh Al-Sīrah. By applying Islamīc sciences and mechanisms of sharī’ah he has authenticated the sīrah narrations firstly and then, infers out of them Islāmic law and rulings. He also dispelled the contradiction among different narrations and quoted the references from Qur’ān and Sunnah on the points derived by him. Somewhere he referred the opinions of different schools of thought besides his own opinion but mostly, being a follower of Imām Shāf‘ī he has confined himself by giving Shāf‘ī opinion only. This article focuses on analytical study of Seerat-e-Ḥalabiyyah in the context of fiqh Al-sīrah.
Imām Ḥalabi, Sīrat-e-Ḥalabiyyah, Imām Shāf‘ī, Fiqh- Al-Sīrah.
Title:اسلامی فلاحی ریاست اور کفالت عامہ کا تصور-پاکستان کےتناظر میں
The Concept of Islamic Welfare State & Social Responsibilities: In Perspective of Pakistan
Author/s:Dr. Naseem Mahmood, Assistant Professor, Institute of Arabic and Islamic Studies, GC Women University, Sialkot.
Dr. Muhammad Atif Aslam Rao Assistant Professor, Department of Islamic Learning, University of Karachi, Karachi.
Islām is a religion of nature and leaves the teachings for human beings which promote welfare and care taking attitude in the natives of Islamic state. The people having authority in the state are stressed to provide the basic needs to every citizen of the state at his doorstep not on his demand. Head of the state is bound to look after the public of the state. If the people are free from the worries of their livelihood then the leader must not feel the fear of his enemies. This paper is a thorough study of the Islamic concept of welfare state and its role in the development, progress and uplift of the nation, state and its moral values. Some aspects will be discussed in its possible practical applications and current Pakistani scenario to analyze the reasons of decline of Pakistanis as well as of the Muslim world.
Islām, Welfare State, Nation, Muslim World, Pakistan.
Title:عہد اکبر میں عربی ادب کی نشاۃ ثانیہ اور اس دور میں علماء کی تصنیفی و تالیفی خدمات ایک مطالعہ
A Study of Arabic literature, its Renaissance and Scholastic Contributions during Akbar’s Regime
Author/s:Dr. Amjad Husain, Lecturer,Department of Education,Rawalakot, Azad Jammu & Kashmir.
Bashir Ahmad Malik, Lecturer, Department of Islamic Studies, Azad Jammu & Kashmir University, Muzaffarabad.
Mughal Emperor Akbar is considered as a great ruler in the history of Indian subcontinent. He had not only strengthened his empire but also made remarkable contribution in the fields of education, history, culture, archeology, and religion. During his reign education remained a central focus of his governmental activities. Many scholars and religious clerics have made significant efforts in promoting literature. This article aims at dealing the Arabic literature, its renaissance and the writing of the scholars and focuses those books which appalled Akbar, he would send for the respective scholars and got there translated from Arabic to Persian. Akbar kept correspondence with Arab rulers. The flourishment of literature in the region of Akbar was very high, witch of Mughal rulers failed.
Mughal Emperor, Akbar, Literature, Arabic, Development.
Title:پاکستان میں نفاذِ اسلام کے لیے کی جانے والی قانونی کاوشوں کا جائزہ (1979ء سے1998ء تک)
An Analysis of Legal Efforts for Enforcement of Islām in Pakistan (from 1979 to 1998)
Author/s:Dr. Abdul Rehman Khan, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Islamic Studies, University of The Poonch,Rawalakot, AJK.
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. The movement for a separate and individual country for Muslims having the manifesto of Islām and active participation of Muslim scholars in such movement signifies that this country namely Pakistan was created for the promotion and enforcement of Islamic teachings. After the creation of this country the leadership tried several times through legislations for Islamic legal system. The active process of such efforts was the era of general Zia-ul-Haq at late 1970. This article discusses constitutional and legal efforts have been made for enforcement of Islām in Pakistan from 1979 to 1998. It also describes the provisions of the Constitution that islamised and highlights some other laws enacted for the promotion of Islamization. It focuses on Federal Sharī‘ah Court, Sharī‘ah Appellate Bench, Zakat & Ushr Ordinance 1980, The ordinance for the non-Muslims of the Qadianis, Ordinance 1984, Nifaẓ e Sharī‘ah Act 1990, Ninth Amendment 1985, Nifaz Sharī‘ah Ordinance 1988, Sharī‘ah Bill 1991, and 15th Amendment Act 1998.
Constitution, Federal Sharī‘ah Court, Sharī‘ah Appellate Bench, Zakat & Ushr Ordinance 1980, Nifaz Sharī‘ah Ordinance 1988.
Title:علامہ محمد عبدالحکیم شرف قادریؒ۔حالات وعلمی کاوشیں
ʿAllāma Muḥammad ʿAbd Al-Ḥakīm Sharf Qādrī: Hagiography and his Intellectual Heritage
Author/s:Muhammad Touseef, Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Religion and Thought System, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Paris, France.
Dr. Mumtaz Ahmed Sadidi, Chairman, Department of Arabic,Minhaj University, Lahore.
ʿAllāma Muḥammad ʿAbd Al-Ḥakīm Sharf Qādrī was one of the most eminent religious scholar and Ṣufī in South Asia, particularly in Pakistan. He studied Islamic and Arabic sciences from the great scholars of the time. He devoted his entire life to promote the accurate understanding of Islām. For this purpose, he wrote several books and treatises in different languages such as Urdu, Persian, and Arabic both in prose and poem with different themes especially the translation of Qur‘ān in Urdu language which is a research-based literary work demonstrates his skills in Arabic, Urdu, and Qur’anic sciences. A close reading of his life and intellectual activities shows that he had ambition to promote an accurate believes and doctrinal conception of Islām, especially in Ahl-e-sunnah school of thought. ʿAllāma Sharf Qādrī was an inaugural act that has left a deep legacy for Islām in Pakistan.
ʿAllāma Muḥammad ʿAbd Al-Ḥakīm Sharf Qādrī, Ṣufī, South Asia, Ahl-e-sunnah, Legacy.
Title:بیسویں صدی میں جدید عصری علوم کی ترویج اور اہمیت وافادیت کےتناظرمیں )پروفیسر سیّد محمد سلیمان اشرف بہاری کے نظریات کا تجزیاتی مطالعہ(
Proliferation and Significance of ‘Modern’ Contemporary Disciplines of Knowledge in 20th Century AD (An Analytical Study of Prof. Syed Muhammad Suleman Ashraf Bihari’s Ideologue)
Author/s:Muhammad Ahmed Tarazi, Researcher,
Dr. Mazher Hussain, Assistant Professor, Department of History, Islamia University, Bahawalpur.
Syed Muhammad Suleman Ashraf Bihari was one of Muslim stalwarts who, by the dint of his acumen, vision and ability, provided multifarious guidance to the Muslims of Indian Subcontinent at the very crucial juncture of History, especially when the Muslims were standing helpless at the crossroads in the face of the Modern Education the very gift the British Colonizers gave to the Indians. Syed Suleman came on the forefront with a clear piece of mind and prepared Muslim Nation to face this upheaval by envisioning them about the dark side of the so called “Modern Education”. He was of the view that the Education could only be said “modern” if it did not harm the very basis of Islamic teachings especially its spiritual essence which was non-materialistic and was meant for world hereafter. His efforts bore fruit and Muslim youth became well-equipped which, in turn, proved backbone for the Pakistan Movement in the forthcoming years. Even Jinnah was the prime admirer of the youth of Aligarh which was vanguard of the Independence Movement. The Research paper in highlights the ideologue of Syed Muhammad Suleman Ashraf who was a great advocate of modern education without making any compromise on the “Islamic essence” of both mode and content of the education and its essentiality for the Two-Nation Theory.
Syed Muhammad Suleman Ashraf Bihari, Indian Subcontinent, Modern Education, British Colonizers, Islamic essence.
Title:مرويات الواقدي التي سبّبت الطعن فيه عند المحدثين (دراسة نقدية تطبيقية للمرويات التي أنكرها ابن عدي)
Muḥaddithīn’s Critique of Al-Wāqidī’s Narrations: A Critical & Applied Study of the Narrations by Ibn-e-‘Adī
Author/s:Dr. Abdul Samad Sheikh, Assistant Professor, Department of Ḥadith, Faculty of Usūl ud dīn,IIU Islamabad.
Muhammad Ibn ‘Umar Al-Wāqidī is one of the famous Muslim historians, got recognition and prominence in the 2nd century A.H. He introduced new trends in writing and composition of historic narratives. He is considered the first Muslim historian who talked about the historical events and what were root causes of their happening and finally analyzed their consequences. Many Muḥaddithīn consider him an authentic and reliable source for historical narratives of the Holy Prophet’s campaigns during the last decade of his life in Madinah. Due to the authenticity of his narratives, they quoted him extensively in their works when write about the life of Holy Prophet ﷺ. Although, he is one of the credible historians and weighed as reliable but some of the Muḥaddithīn criticized him by not following the applied methodology in hadith transmission. The current paper discusses all the narratives which were considered to be the root cause of Muḥaddithīn's critique on Al-Wāqidī. The focus of the paper is on the twelve narratives quoted by the prominent critique Ibn-e-‘Adī. Finally, this paper analyses the denial of Ibn-e-‘Adī on Al-Wāqidī’s narratives extensively with several aspects and concludes that criticism of Ibn-e-‘Adi is correct or incorrect.
Al-Wāqidī, Muḥaddithīn, Ibn-e-‘Adī, Denial of Narratives, Muslim Historian.
Title:’’المعجزة الكبرى القرآن‘‘لأبي زهرة في نثر الأدب الفصحى
“Al-Mu‘jazah Al-Kubrā Al-Qur’ān”
In Classical Arab literature by Sheikh Abū Zahrah
Author/s:Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Tariq, Head, Dept of Islamic Studies, Govt. Razvia Islamia Post Graduate College, Haroonabad.
Sheikh Abū Zahrah was one of the prominent Muslim scholars who stirred himself closely in touch with the existing Islamic law and was focused extensively on the Holy Qur’ān. He was one of the leading Muslim religious scholars of the twentieth century has written several books and other writings on Islāmic law, jurisprudence, theology, Qur’ānic sciences, Ḥadith sciences and Arabic literature. His academic strength was his style of writing and encyclopedic knowledge distinguished his works from other scholars of the Muslim World. He was one of the scholars who gained international acclaim and left behind a distinctive legacy of scholarship. Although his focus was on Islamic law generally in his writings but he was having a keen interest in the field of Qur’ānic Studies. His book “Al-Mu‘jazah Al-Kubrā Al-Qur’ān” is an example of his interest and his contribution in the field of Arabic literature. The researcher discusses the importance and contribution of Sheikh Abū Zahrah in the development of classical Arab literature in 20th century. The paper denotes some important aspects of his life by introducing his family. This paper analyses his scholarly works generally and focuses on “Al-Mu‘jazah Al-Kubrā Al-Qur’ān” particularly.
Abu Zahrah, Al-Mu‘jazah Al-Kubra Al-Qur’ān, Qur’ānic sciences, Classical Arab Literature.
Title:ظاهرة الطلاق والمناهج المتبعة لمعالجتها في مركز الاستشارات العائلية في المجتمع القطري للعام 2015م
Divorce in the Qatarī Society and Wifāq's (Family Consulting Center) remedial role in 2015
Author/s:Hind Al-Hammadi, Graduate Student, Hamad Bin Khalifa Universirsity, Qatar.
Dr. Muhammad Modassir Ali Senior Researcher, Center for Muslim Contributions to Civilization, College of Islamic Studies, Hamad Bin Khalifa Universirsity, Qatar.
Divorce has become an increasingly threatening phenomenon in the Qatarī society. It reached a towering 56.2% in 2014 and is thus the cause for sustained alarm and worry owing to its dreadful impact on individuals, families and hence the society itself. Moreover, this alarming rise stands in glaring contrast to the goals set by Qatar's National Development Strategy 2011-2016. These goals include building a peaceful, secure and stable society under effective government and family institutions, and developing policies and programmes to promote family cohesion. This field study will be conducted at Wifāq - Family Consulting Center, to which divorce cases are usually transferred from the Family Court to carry out family reforms and to provide family counselling to both parties. The study will try to determine the causes of divorce through interviews conducted with counsellors working to resolve family conflicts and their mode of action to address the divorce cases that are filed. It will end with some recommendations both by the counsellors and the authors to reduce this phenomenon in the Qatarī society.
Divorce, Qatarī Society, Consulting Center, Wifāq.
Title:The Legal Status of ‘Bitcoin’ in Islamic Law
Author/s:Dr. Muhammad Akbar Khan, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Sharī’ah & Law, IIU, Islamabad.
Mr. Muhammad Zamin, Lecturer, Faculty of Sharī’ah & Law, Islamia College University, Peshawar
This research paper attempts to critically evaluate some of the existing literature on the legal status of Bitcoin in Islamic law and jurisprudence. The questions like what is Bitcoin? How Bitcoin can be earned/acquired? Is Bitcoin treated as currency? Does it function as a medium of exchange? Does it correspond to the definition of money in Islamic Law? Is Bitcoin a precious metal or food? Is it abundant in supply and freely available? Is it durable? Does it have intrinsic value? Does it exists in creation and is made valuable by God? These and other relevant questions have been tackled in this research paper. To answer these questions all the basic features of the Bitcoin have been thoroughly analyzed from the perspective of Islamic standards for a currency. The opinions of the contemporary Muslim and Non-Muslim jurists have been thoroughly reviewed in order to formulate a profound concept about the status of Bitcoin in Islamic law. The salient features of currency in Islamic law have been critically evaluated. The research paper is based on doctrinal method of legal research. At the end the paper is concluded with the findings that the general tendency of jurists is towards unacceptance of Bitcoin as a currency however there are jurists who accept it as a currency.
Crypto-currency, Bitcoin, Legal Status, Islamic Law, Fiat Money.
Title:Role of Religion in Creating Sense of Public Responsibility and Work Ethics: Lessons from Qur’ān and Sunnah
Author/s:Fida-Ur-Rahman, Lecturer, Department of Social Sciences,University College of Zhob, BUITEMS, Baluchistan.
Dr. Janas Khan, Assistant Professor, Department of Islamic Studies, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Dir Lower, KPK.
Religion and human nature have a very unique and consistent relationship, because both are divinely revealed and ordained. Whatever religion instructs is basically in accordance with the human nature. Islām satisfies human nature in the best, feasible and rational way. Religious injunctions are meant for purification and nourishment of human soul, making good sense of responsibility, selfless devotion and work ethics. Consequently, a society establishes that has God-oriented religiosity, spiritually awakened and materially satisfied citizens having highest sense of responsibility not because of some external force but due to his/her natural impulses that always motivate and encourage him/her for playing a positive and responsible role and discourages him/her from treading the path of negativity and irresponsibility. Islām generates the sense of responsibility and work ethics. An attempt has been made in this paper to study and explore all such actions and saying of the Holy Prophet Mohammad ﷺ that can be practiced in contemporary corporate sector for gaining actual and ideal potential of the individuals. The research study is based on the Qur’ānic injunctions and Sunnah, of the Holy Prophet Muhammad ﷺ.
Religion, Responsibility, Human Nature, Qur’ān, Sunnah.
Title:Muslim Intellectual Deficit: Reasons and Remedies
Author/s:Dr. Altaf Hussain Yatoo Assistant Professor Higher Education Department, Jammu & Kashmir, India